Tanah Merah Brand Strategy

A partnership is an agreement where different parties agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests. The partners in Tanah Merah may be individuals, businesses, governments, and so on. It is a specific kind of legal relationship formed by agreement between two or more parties to carry on business.

A partnership in business is similar to personal partnerships. A successful business partnership requires not just short-term mutual interest but long-term compatibility.

Relationship Between Innovation And Strategic Management

Entering into a business partnership in Tanah Merah can be very exciting. You’ve found someone who shares your vision, works well with you, and has lots of great ideas. To create a partnership business, understand the why of your partner, seek commonality and shared vision, don’t rush the process, write things down.

Be clear on the value you bring to the table. Be honest about why you’re interested in creating a partnership. Understand why your partner is seeking to connect. Best partnerships work because the vision and values are shared as well as passion and enthusiasm. Seal all agreements in writing to avoid messy breakups in future. Contracts preserve relationship, not destroy them.

3 Surprising Ways Artificial Intelligence Can Push Marketing and Advertising to the Next Level

The management of supply chains is constantly developing due to momentous changes such as the Internet, E-commerce and the globalisation of supply chains. Its success often relies on rapid, accurate and efficient handling of data. The trend towards lean and agile distribution channels and the growth of Fourth Party Logistic Providers (4PLs) within the supply chain industry requires significant organisation and management. The efficient control of these activities requires supply chain knowledge, operational information and importantly, timely and accurate data to support the decision making process. Essentially, effective and efficient data acquisition techniques are required.

RFID is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to communicate the identity of individual items over an air interface. RFID works similarly to bar code technology in that an item has to be interrogated by a scanner or reader for it to be identified. Barcodes, however, have one significant downfall, they require line-of-site technology. That means the scanner has to see the barcode to read it, which usually means items have to be manually oriented towards the scanner for it to be read. Conversely, RFID does not require line-of-site and can be read as long as the item is within range of the reader.

RFID is now being considered as an integral link in E-Commerce environments. The technology in theory should enhance and complement Electronic Data Interchanges (EDIs) to facilitate quick response and the generation of exception reports. This should allow real time information to be transmitted to partners within the supply chain supporting the decision-making process. Ultimately RFID should provide immediacy of data right down to individual item level identification. This can help bridge the gap between the customer, the order and order fulfilment process to the satisfaction of the customer. This means that it can enable the enhanced responsiveness expected within an E-Business environment.

The supply of on-demand barcode label printers currently represents one of the most widely used AIDC technologies (technologies such as: barcodes, smart cards, magnetic stripes on credit cards, optical character recognition etc) in supply chain applications (e.g. EPOS, warehouse and inventory management). Due to mandates set by influential leaders in the retail and defence industries, barcode label printers with RFID enabled capabilities present a real opportunity for companies to develop and extend their product portfolios by providing products which will enable companies to meet compliance objectives. Opportunities also exist to provide printers for those companies faced with compliance for when usage and acceptance of the technology becomes more prevalent. An entire new market segment will have emerged, requiring a widespread ongoing supply of printers, peripheral equipment and consumables.

Bar code systems Bar code systems include the symbologies that encode data to be optically read, printing technologies that produce the machine-readable symbols and scanners and decoders that capture the visual images of the symbologies and convert them into computercompatible digital data. Barcode scanning reduces errors associated with manual data handling, and produces visibility to aid supply chain management. A significant benefit of bar codes is that they are extremely cheap to produce and provide an efficient means of item identification. Unfortunately, according to some sources, bar codes are proving increasingly inadequate in a growing number of applications. Bar coding is an optical technology, which introduces constraints regarding orientation of the product (invariably requiring human intervention) and cleanliness of labels and scanners for fast efficient data collection. Bar codes can be easily copied and so become an easy target for counterfeiting. In addition, standard barcodes have low storage capacity, cannot be reprogrammed and only identify the manufacturer and product and not the unique item. Industry bodies indicate that bar code systems are now a mature technology with limited potential for further growth.

RFID is emerging as a complementary technology to help overcome some of the drawbacks associated with bar code technology. RFID systems consist of transponders (tags), which are made up of a microchip with a coiled antenna and an interrogator (reader) with an antenna. The tags are attached to the items to be identified and the RFID readers communicate with the tags via electromagnetic waves. RFID middleware (software) provides the interface for communication between the interrogator and existing company databases and information management systems. RFID is a term used to describe any identification device that can be sensed at a distance by radio frequencies with few problems of obstruction and mis-orientation. The devices are often referred to as 'RFID tags' or 'Smart Labels'.

In its most basic form, a smart label consists of an ultra- thin RFID tag often referred to as an inlay. Inlays for smart labels are available in the 13.56 MHz, 860 to 930 MHz and 2.45 GHz frequency ranges. The inlays are embedded in label material, which is printed with human-readable text, graphics and bar codes (passive smart label). The printed data both supplements and backs up the information that is programmed into the tag. An evolutionary product to passive smart label technology is the smart active label (SAL). SALs can be defined using the same definition of smart labels above, but for one clear distinction, the inclusion of an integral power source. This distinguishing characteristic allows SALs to provide enhanced functionality over passive RFID smart labels including sensory, processing, display and locating capabilities. Smart labels are typically used for disposable applications and are not as durable as permanent RFID tags, which can be encased in materials to withstand harsh environments. Although one company suggests that the label material can be developed to withstand environmental conditions and that appropriate adhesive can ensure the label lasts the required duration.

Smart labels are referred to as smart because of their flexible capabilities provided by the RFID tag embedded in the label. The tag can be programmed and/or updated in the field allowing the same label to be reused serving multiple needs and disparate applications. Subsequently, the label is no longer static as a bar code label, but dynamic in its capability when equipped with RFID. Supporters of RFID suggest benefits which include: cost savings through automating the check-out process, a reduction in labour associated with performing inventory counts; improved theft prevention and increased authenticity control, a reduction in inventory holding cost, diversions and improved product availability. Unfortunately, an exact description of how the benefits are attainable in practice has often remained vague. The main criticisms on RFID technology are that it is too expensive and that it is unlikely that the investment will pay off. It is also argued that RFID is an over-marketed, hyped technology and that existing bar code based systems already provide most of the needed functionality.

With the support of our professional business network, you get the opportunity to exchange experience and knowledge at a top professional level, and to strengthen and develop your own skills within your management and specialist areas.

Legal structure of partnership will dictate many decisions as to how the business is run.

Main partnership types are:

  1. General Partnership: formed when all partners participate in business operations and take mutual responsibility for business’s debt. These offer very little protection for partners from liability.
  2. Limited Partnership: most often chosen when business partners in Tanah Merah are taking an uneven level of involvement in business.
  3. Limited Liability Partnership: is a structure that limits each individual’s personal financial responsibility.

What’s left unsaid or unplanned often leads to unmet expectations. Partners can clash over countless things.

Focus Group Discussion Methodology

First, ask yourself do you really need a business partner to build a successful business in Tanah Merah? Test the partnership out by tackling a small project together. Business partnership can end bitterly. Be especially careful when partnering with close friends or family members. Thoughtfully plan and prepare for every aspect of partnership in advance so there’s no question about how difficult situations will be handled. Create a partnership agreement with help from a lawyer and an accountant. Agreement should address compensation, roles and responsibilities, exit clauses. Outline your expectations for how you’ll operate your business.

Networking has always been considered a powerful tool for improving business prospects, advancing a career, and developing ideas. Other than some brief, structured events, networking has been mostly informal and inexpensive in comparison to cost they otherwise spend on different channels. But membership is growing in many formal, long-term networking groups, and so is the price tag.

Is Machine Learning Helping Marketers or Making Them Obsolete?

Brand positioning is an essential element of a winning branding strategy. Positioning simply refers to how your product or service is viewed in the minds of prospects and customers relative to other products or services available in your niche.

The term positioning has two connotations: a vertical and a horizontal one. In terms of the vertical connotation, the term refers to the order in which your product ranks relative to the products of your competitors in the minds of your customers in your industry niche. (For example, which product comes to mind first when I say the word cola?)

In terms of the horizontal connotation, the term refers to the qualities and attributes your product represents in the mind of your customers, again relative to your competitors.

While you cannot directly control the ranking that your product or service enjoys in the minds of your customers, you can influence how you position the product in terms of qualities and attributes. That is, by properly positioning your product relative to your competitors in the minds of your customers, you will have much more control over how your brand is perceived in the marketplace. You will then effectively have a guide or map for how to execute your branding strategy.

Brief Exercise:

Identify the key differentiators of your product. Ask yourself: why would customers buy from me? What makes my product different? What is the unique value it adds? Be sure to list at least 4-5 traits that set your product apart and make it unique.

Addressing the issues upfront will help you better focus on your business later. Set expectations for a successful business partnership. Know your relationship with your business partner. Know your financial roles and viewpoints. Know your exit strategy. Agree on structuring your partnership.

Ubi Sme Supply Chain

A partnership is an agreement where different parties agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests. The partners in Ubi may be individuals, businesses, governments, and so on. It is a specific kind of legal relationship formed by agreement between two or more parties to carry on business.

A partnership in business is similar to personal partnerships. A successful business partnership requires not just short-term mutual interest but long-term compatibility.

Accelerating AI For Local Businesses Smes

Entering into a business partnership in Ubi can be very exciting. You’ve found someone who shares your vision, works well with you, and has lots of great ideas. To create a partnership business, understand the why of your partner, seek commonality and shared vision, don’t rush the process, write things down.

Be clear on the value you bring to the table. Be honest about why you’re interested in creating a partnership. Understand why your partner is seeking to connect. Best partnerships work because the vision and values are shared as well as passion and enthusiasm. Seal all agreements in writing to avoid messy breakups in future. Contracts preserve relationship, not destroy them.

Marketing Strategy - How to Plan Your Advertisement

Branding strategy is an important component of every business. Branding strategy is the most effective way to sell a product/service and to enhance the demand for a product/service in the market. Increasing competition in business develops similar products with good quality from different manufacturers. But an effective branding strategy only makes your business and products more popular. Branding strategy is usually designed and developed by the marketing department.

An effective branding strategy can be achieved with a proper research of different kinds of needs and expectations of people who buy your product. Good branding strategies will involve your brand communications, analytical techniques, and creative positioning. Before getting into the process of brand building, various elements for branding your products/services would need to be analyzed carefully. These key elements come into play by means of an appropriate action plan. A proper branding strategy begins with analyzing various measurable advantages of your product over your competitors. This leads to the execution of an effective branding strategy for your product.

Building a strong and unique identity is one of the most important procedures in creating a branding strategy. It includes unification of your brand, effective communication of your brand message, research methods, and various strategies. Internal branding helps to create a strategy within your business. This helps in developing your branding strategy in a much unique style. Brand targeting and positioning help you in defining things like your brand character, availability of your product in the market, and reputation of your product. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration.

It is always recommended to keep track of the strategy in all stages. Measuring your brand always helps you improve branding strategy for your business. It includes tasks such as tracking and measuring of your brand initiatives, measuring their performance, managing the visual identity of the brand, and maintaining a corporate reputation. Creative advertising is a tricky way in developing a branding strategy. In general, an effective branding strategy helps your business attain more profit, while developing faster.

With the support of our professional business network, you get the opportunity to exchange experience and knowledge at a top professional level, and to strengthen and develop your own skills within your management and specialist areas.

Legal structure of partnership will dictate many decisions as to how the business is run.

Main partnership types are:

  1. General Partnership: formed when all partners participate in business operations and take mutual responsibility for business’s debt. These offer very little protection for partners from liability.
  2. Limited Partnership: most often chosen when business partners in Ubi are taking an uneven level of involvement in business.
  3. Limited Liability Partnership: is a structure that limits each individual’s personal financial responsibility.

What’s left unsaid or unplanned often leads to unmet expectations. Partners can clash over countless things.

Supply Chain Management Case Study

First, ask yourself do you really need a business partner to build a successful business in Ubi? Test the partnership out by tackling a small project together. Business partnership can end bitterly. Be especially careful when partnering with close friends or family members. Thoughtfully plan and prepare for every aspect of partnership in advance so there’s no question about how difficult situations will be handled. Create a partnership agreement with help from a lawyer and an accountant. Agreement should address compensation, roles and responsibilities, exit clauses. Outline your expectations for how you’ll operate your business.

Networking has always been considered a powerful tool for improving business prospects, advancing a career, and developing ideas. Other than some brief, structured events, networking has been mostly informal and inexpensive in comparison to cost they otherwise spend on different channels. But membership is growing in many formal, long-term networking groups, and so is the price tag.

e-Marketing Strategy: 7 Dimensions to Consider For Digital Growth

I am often asked, "How do I know that I am getting the most bang for my buck when running an ad in any particular advertising vehicle?" The answer here is that it depends. There are many factors to consider in determining if you are on the right track. Following are some tips that will help you.

1. Determine Your Ad Campaign Goals
What is your goal for your advertising campaign? Are you trying to create awareness? Do you want to generate traffic to your website or store front? Do you need X amount of leads to come from your campaign? Do you want to create a certain amount of sales for a new product or service? Determine what you need your ad to do for you then design your ad with the goal in mind.

2. Determine Your Budget
When I ask my clients about their advertising budget, I am often presented with this blank stare. It is very important to determine what the advertising budget is throughout the course of a year, and stick to it! Break out your budget and determine what you can spend per month. It's common sense, I know but many people don't do this in their business. Then go back to determine, based on upcoming events, what advertising needs to take place and when. Remember that it's okay to mix in other marketing vehicles such as internet ads, workshops, article marketing or public relations. These activities do not take a chuck out of your budget to implement.

3. Have Your Target Market In Mind
Who is your target audience? Where do they live? Where do they work? What is their income bracket? What is their marital status or age group? What are their habits? The answers to these questions will greatly help you determine which marketing vehicle to use based on their demographics. For example, if you find that most of your customers are into skiing, then you may want to advertising at a ski resort, in a ski magazine, exhibit at a conference or tradeshow that targets skiers or advertise on a billboard next to a ski shop.

4. Give Your Ad Time
So, how much time should you give your ad to do its job you ask? Again, the answer is, it depends. Monthly and quarterly marketing vehicles will require longer lead times than a local newspaper or radio. Plus, consider your campaign goals. Is your goal to create awareness, then you'll want to plan and run a continuous, steady, balanced campaign. If you are running a special during a specific holiday season for example, you'll want to run intense, concentrated campaigns. For instance, for a landscaper running an aeration promotion during the fall and summer months, he'll run more frequent ads for a few weeks rather than months, and then move to a more steady and poised pace during the summer and winter.

Keeping in mind that people need to see and hear your message several times before it sticks, different messages also resonate with different people. However, if your ad is producing little to no response, the advertising vehicle may not be to blame. Your ad may be the cause. Check that your ad has a compelling offer. Do you have a call to action in your ad? Is it too wordy where your audience glazes right over it? Do you have a catchy ad tagline? Remember, you have seconds to catch the attention of your audience. Are you trying to sell all your products in one ad? Keep your message to one subject and focus on one goal in each ad. Most advertising vehicles will allow you to change your ad at any given time. Test your ad for best results.

5. Measure Your Ad's Effectiveness
Keep track of which ad in what marketing vehicles are producing the best results. If you have a coupon running in various media, put a code at the bottom of each ad that will tell you where that coupon came from when a customer uses it. Have a slightly different offer in different media mixes to determine how a customer found you. Note: Different offers can also effect how will your ad is fairing. If you have one ad offering a percentage off versus a specific dollar amount, the results can differ dramatically. Above all, ask your customers how they heard about you.

5.5 Also, determine your cost of reaching your customers. Using the cost per thousand (CPM) method, multiply the cost of the ad by 1,000 and then divide that number by the size of the audience (your ad representative or advertising agency should be able to give you this information). To illustrate, if your ad cost you $650 to run in your local newspaper and their reach is 22,000, then the cost to reach your customers is ($650 x 1,000 / 22,000) $29.54. Comparing the CPM across various marketing vehicles will help you place your ad accordingly.

By following these simple guidelines, you'll place yourself in a more favorable position to meet your goals, stay on target while producing results, without extending your marketing budget.

Addressing the issues upfront will help you better focus on your business later. Set expectations for a successful business partnership. Know your relationship with your business partner. Know your financial roles and viewpoints. Know your exit strategy. Agree on structuring your partnership.

Online Business Community Singapore

Online Business Community Business networking means establishing a mutually beneficial relationship with other business people and potential clients/customers. It refers to building and cultivating relationship with people of similar interests in ways that can benefit all parties.

People have been networking in Singapore for Online Business Community as long as they’ve been communicating. Effective networking is to make you known. Primary purpose of business networking is to tell others about your business and hopefully turn them into customers. Purpose of business networking is to increase business revenue. Business networking helps you eventually attain business growth and increase the profits.

10 Sneaky Ways To Build Brand Awareness

You can use networking as a tool for finding customers, investors, staff, suppliers and business partners with minimal cost to business by being a part of any Online Business Community. Networking is important in business as it’s a means to form relationship with others that helps to grow your business. Business networking is one of the most effective marketing and prospecting tools you can use to grow your business.

Networking with TheNewHandshake is a socioeconomic business activity by which business people meet to form relationships, to create and act upon business opportunities, share info and seek potential partners for ventures.

Networking can be done via local/ regional/ international Business Networking Groups, Mastermind groups, Community service groups, Professional associations, and Social media/ online business networking groups.

Benefits of business networking:

  1. You gain new contacts and referrals, increasing your business. Help you identify opportunities for partnerships, joint ventures, or new areas of expansion for business. You get much higher quality leads.
  2. Visibility, as it helps keep you front and center in the minds of right people. This helps raise your profile.
  3. You stay current, keeping up with market conditions and overall trends in your industry.
  4. You find solutions to your business problems, such as financial problems and finding ideal candidate.
  5. You expand knowledge by taking advantage of the viewpoints and prior experience of others.
Focus Group Discussion Methodology

Internet age offers new Online Business Community networking tools. Online social networking sites have taken business networking to a new level. Many websites provide business-oriented social networking online. Some people also make good use of blogs for networking. Social networking sites help you reach out to people at your convenience, without having to attend events or meetings. But good business networking shouldn’t begin and end with online social networking. They don’t replace face-to-face networking.

3 Surprising Ways Artificial Intelligence Can Push Marketing and Advertising to the Next Level

Owning a business is a very exciting adventure. It can also be the most difficult thing for you to get into if you are not prepared. One of the most intimidating aspects of business is branding. The reason is because many people look at all of the big corporations such as McDonald's, Wal-Mart, and other types of businesses that have been around for a very long time, and think that they could never beat these guys out. The truth is that you are not necessarily trying to knock these guys out because they aren't trying to knock each other out. The purpose is to brand you enough to make a presence. When you make a presence for yourself, you draw attention.

It is very important for you to brand yourself for whatever marketplace you are trying to infiltrate. When we talk about branding, we are not necessarily talking about emblems or logos. You also have to take into account certain branding signatures that make businesses well known. For example, you might see a crowd of people go to a particular business because of a specific deal that they have on certain days (i.e. free drink with purchase of two hamburgers). Sometimes deals, discounts, and many other common methods of advertising can cause people to take notice.

So how do you create a brand strategy? You need to understand the totality of what separates you from the other competition. Don't concentrate on trying to be the top dog in the marketplace. Instead focused on what you can do to stand out from the crowd.

Networking can be a waste of time if done incorrectly. Trading business cards with dozens of people, sending mass email blasts, racking up hundreds of friends on social media may not accomplish much.

Although increased sales is the end goal, don’t participate in business networking to sell. Successful networks build relationships. Find and develop relationship with people. At TheNewHandshake we believe networking can be a very powerful tool in enhancing your ability to lead and influence other people, but only when you provide value to the people in your network.

Develop a network before you need it. Stay in touch. Cultivate respect and trust. Be genuinely interested. Choose the right group. Be responsive and develop relationship.

Bedok Managing Logistics

A partnership is an agreement where different parties agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests. The partners in Bedok may be individuals, businesses, governments, and so on. It is a specific kind of legal relationship formed by agreement between two or more parties to carry on business.

A partnership in business is similar to personal partnerships. A successful business partnership requires not just short-term mutual interest but long-term compatibility.

Master Innovation Management

Entering into a business partnership in Bedok can be very exciting. You’ve found someone who shares your vision, works well with you, and has lots of great ideas. To create a partnership business, understand the why of your partner, seek commonality and shared vision, don’t rush the process, write things down.

Be clear on the value you bring to the table. Be honest about why you’re interested in creating a partnership. Understand why your partner is seeking to connect. Best partnerships work because the vision and values are shared as well as passion and enthusiasm. Seal all agreements in writing to avoid messy breakups in future. Contracts preserve relationship, not destroy them.

e-Marketing Strategy: 7 Dimensions to Consider For Digital Growth

In simple words, a marketing strategy is the HOW and WHY of a marketing plan. Marketing strategies need to be based on good plans, without which you will lose direction and focus. Here are a few tips for creating market strategies.

Start with Vision and Mission

Vision asks the question: "What do you want to become?" As the leaders and thinkers in the organization, foresight is very important as it defines any action that should be taken from that point on. Mission asks the questions, "Why do you exist?" as well as "What steps are you willing to take to achieve your goal?" This takes into consideration the present situation, as it reflects strengths and weaknesses that help you make a solid evaluation of where you are at the moment.

Look outward

Be aware of trends in the market, as well as other outside factors that might affect it. Taking a global perspective into consideration allows you to think creatively and beyond the sphere of what you are comfortable with. Being a keen observer prepares you for any changes in the market.

Look inward

Make an assessment of competitors and threats, keeping your friends close, but your enemies closer. Nothing is more thrilling than knowing how to adapt to competitors who are willing to fight tooth and nail for your precious market share. Know what you are up against so you'll never be a step behind.

Be innovative

Lastly, after gathering all the data, plan your marketing strategy and learn how to think outside the box. Successful strategies have been borne out of creative minds that were willing to make a difference when everybody else was doing the same thing. Although some cut-and-dried strategies have worked, it takes an ingenious one to put you at the top. Don't be afraid to be different.

With the support of our professional business network, you get the opportunity to exchange experience and knowledge at a top professional level, and to strengthen and develop your own skills within your management and specialist areas.

Legal structure of partnership will dictate many decisions as to how the business is run.

Main partnership types are:

  1. General Partnership: formed when all partners participate in business operations and take mutual responsibility for business’s debt. These offer very little protection for partners from liability.
  2. Limited Partnership: most often chosen when business partners in Bedok are taking an uneven level of involvement in business.
  3. Limited Liability Partnership: is a structure that limits each individual’s personal financial responsibility.

What’s left unsaid or unplanned often leads to unmet expectations. Partners can clash over countless things.

Accelerating AI For Local Businesses Smes

First, ask yourself do you really need a business partner to build a successful business in Bedok? Test the partnership out by tackling a small project together. Business partnership can end bitterly. Be especially careful when partnering with close friends or family members. Thoughtfully plan and prepare for every aspect of partnership in advance so there’s no question about how difficult situations will be handled. Create a partnership agreement with help from a lawyer and an accountant. Agreement should address compensation, roles and responsibilities, exit clauses. Outline your expectations for how you’ll operate your business.

Networking has always been considered a powerful tool for improving business prospects, advancing a career, and developing ideas. Other than some brief, structured events, networking has been mostly informal and inexpensive in comparison to cost they otherwise spend on different channels. But membership is growing in many formal, long-term networking groups, and so is the price tag.

Tops 7 Mistakes Executives Make When Digitizing The Business

Developing brand strategy is extremely critical. The most important asset your company has is its brand. Quite simply, for better or worse, it drives the direction of your business. You should definitely have a well thought out brand strategy in place. Unfortunately, too many companies don't have a brand strategy, or have an inconsistent brand strategy. A brand strategy company should realize there's probably a good reason you may not be paying attention to your brand strategy--you're busy running your business.

What you don't realize is that a proper brand strategy can make running your business easier and more profitable. A brand strategy is truly powerful, and a brand strategy company should be ready to help you find and develop the right brand strategy for your company.

Just how important is it that you hire someone who understands what makes a solid brand strategy? Consider this. Say you want to remodel your kitchen. If you were to do it yourself with no prior experience, it would take a lot of time and a lot of trial and error to get it right. That's why it's a better idea to hire a good contractor to get the job done right the first time and on budget. The same is true for brand strategy.

Creating the right brand strategy for your business requires research and a great deal of thought on how to creatively execute a brand strategy that captivates your audience. Then, it takes a talented group of creative branding strategy gurus to execute it. A branding company should be ready to be your "contractor" and develop a brand strategy that works for your business.

Addressing the issues upfront will help you better focus on your business later. Set expectations for a successful business partnership. Know your relationship with your business partner. Know your financial roles and viewpoints. Know your exit strategy. Agree on structuring your partnership.